forty percent of Americans take vitamin and mineral supplements
optimal bodily function, especially in athletes, cannot occur without daily ingestion of a precise mix of 59 substances, in the correct amounts
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur are needed in large amounts, while the remaining 54 are needed in medium or small amounts
the 54 substances previously mentioned are less plentiful in the environment and thus in our food, so you are more likely to develop a deficiency in those ones
as of May 1992, 13 vitamins, 22 minerals, 6 cofactors, 8 amino acids, and two essential fatty acids (EFAs) were recognized as essential to the human system
all nutrients act in synergy to produce, maintain, and renew the body, and if even one is missing, or in short supply, the functions of the others are impaired
the word ”essential” means: 1) nutrients have to be present in adequate amounts or function is impaired, 2) the body cannot make nutrients or cannot make enough of them for normal tissue function, and 3) you have to get them from your diet
supplements can make up for shortcomings in your diet.
supplements can make good health easier for you to achieve.
on 9 April, 1991, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Nutrition, a Washington lobby representing 3000 physicians, asked the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to abandon the four food groups and to reclassify meats and dairy as ”optional foods” – 2004 Harvard has instituted a food pyramid that tips the USDA and Health Canada food pyramids upside down.
a professor of nutritional biochemistry at Cornell University, presented evidence that the excess intakes of meat and dairy products in America is strongly linked with their high rates of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis
on 27 April 1992, the USDA issued a food pyramid emphasizing whole grains, then vegetables, then fruits, as the basis of nutrition, with meats and dairy as minor foods
just a ”balanced” “mainstream” diet alone is not enough to ensure good nutrition.
pregnant women, dieters, and senior citizens, simply cannot obtain the recommended allowances for certain nutrients through “mainstream” food alone.
sometimes supplements are a safer source of certain nutrients than certain foods.
Principles Of Nutrition
Synergy. Nutrients are co-dependant on other nutrients to exert function within the body. They function only by interdependent interactions with each other.
Completeness. The corollary of synergy is that even if one essential nutrient is in short supply, none of the others can function properly.
Biochemical Individuality. Nutritional needs of individuals differ as much as their faces and fingerprints. Each person requires an individual nutrition program
Lifestyle Dynamics. Lifestyle choices such as the choice of training level, or the choice of living in a polluted urban area, dramatically affect nutritional needs.
Precision. There is only a narrow range of intake of each nutrient that will produce the optimum function.
Physiological Dynamics. Improved nutrition must wait on nature to renew whole bodily systems before its effects can show.
boron provides biochemicals called hydroxyl groups, essential for the manufacture of the active forms of some steroid hormones; especially the hormones involved in Ca, P, and Mg metabolism in bone, and in muscle growth
adequate boron status is necessary for normal testosterone production
post-menopausal women who supplemented 3 mg./day of sodium borate showed increased blood levels of testosterone and 17-beta-estradiol, the most active form of estrogen
Interactions and Toxicity:
intakes above 50mg/day may interfere with phosphorus and/or riboflavin metabolism
soybeans, almonds, peanuts, prunes, raisins, dates and unprocessed honey
a 70 kg. person contains 1.3 kg Ca (99% of that is in the bones)
ability to prevent and slow osteoporosis, the brittle bone disease affecting one out of every four American women (to qualify you must have lost 30% of your bone mass) or 6.3 million Americans
need Mg, Si, Fl, Zn, Cu, B, Mn, P, and vitamin D in addition to calcium to build strong bones
bones change everyday via the process of remodeling
without good calcium intake, remodeling can result in bones that grow progressively thinner
osteoporosis may be a factor in loss of bone from the jaw, leading to a loss of teeth
loss of teeth is thus an early warning sign of osteoporosis
apparent role in controlling high blood pressure
lowers the chances of developing colon cancer because it binds to harmful substances
colon cancer rates are significantly lower in Florida, which is thought to be related to the production of large amounts of vitamin D on a regular basis, which then enhances the absorption of calcium in the intestines where it is needed to exert it’s cancer preventative effects
Ca controls nerve impulses and muscle contraction
average daily intake is 743 mg.
RDA is 1200 mg.
for women over 35, 75% are not meeting the RDA
two-thirds of American women (18-35) have Ca intakes below the RDA (recommended daily allowance)
maximum bone mass and strength is achieved between the ages of 18 and 35
bone mineralization increases tremendously in response to the stress of exercise
when women reach menopause their need for calcium rises dramatically due to the sharp drop in estrogen production, that accompanies menopause, which is a major bone-protecting factor with enormous influence
to make up for the sharp decrease in estrogen production at menopause a woman needs to increase her calcium intake and/or replace estrogen
recommendations of Consensus Panel on Osteoporosis convened by National Institute of Health (NIH) in 1984 were: postmenopausal women – 1000 mg. of Ca/day; postmenopausal women (without estrogen) – 1500 mg., and postmenopausal women (with estrogen) – 1000 mg.
some bone loss does occur before menopause so it is also wise to increase your calcium intake for approximately one decade before menopause
too little Ca is not the only thing contributing to osteoporosis. Other factors include: frequent use of aluminum-containing antacids, high alcohol intake, removal of the ovaries (without estrogen replacement), a sedentary lifestyle, small build, smoking, stress, and thinness (10% below desirable weight)
women are more likely to be affected by osteoporosis but men are more likely to be affected by high blood pressure
white women are more frequently affected than black women
calcium must be soluble in order to be absorbed and this requires stomach acid
some people, especially the elderly, do not secrete sufficient stomach acid (hypochlorhydria) to change calcium from the insoluble form to the soluble form
about 10% over 60 years have insufficient stomach acid and about 30% of people over 70 years secrete inadequate stomach acid
hypochlorhydria is a condition most common around menopause
patients with low stomach acid should only use soluble calcium supplements
bedtime is the best time to take a calcium supplement, because the hormones released during sleep enhance Ca absorption
it should be noted that a high protein diet, which increases the levels of uric acid in the body, which must be buffered, increase the excretion of calcium and many other minerals, thus leaching it from the bones
calcium carbonate (oyster shell, egg shell, or other) contains a high percent calcium but it is an insoluble form and requires a lot of stomach acid to dissolve it
calcium citrate (21% Ca) is a much more soluble form of Ca, and it is 30% absorbed, and thus it is suitable for use by the elderly and others with hypochlorhydria
calcium phosphate is not advisable either as most diets are already too high in phosphate
however, out of mono-, di-, or triphosphate the most soluble is the monophosphate
chelated calcium (ie, calcium bound to an amino acid rather than something else like carbonate) is more soluble also
calcium chloride is highly soluble, but it irritates the stomach lining
calcium gluconate and lactate are very soluble forms, which do not cause stomach irritation, but the percentage of calcium in them is very small (13% in lactate and 9% in gluconate)
bonemeal (30% Ca) and dolomite (20% Ca) should be avoided because of their high concentrations of lead and other heavy metals
milk, being less than 1% Ca and only 27% absorbed is a poor source of calcium
it should also be noted that milk and other dairy products, often eaten to get calcium, are also very high in toxic metals, pesticides, hormones, antibiotics etc.
Interactions and Toxicity:
no toxicity has been reported with 2500 mg./day
problems from excessive calcium intake result only if the body absorbs too much calcium from what is consumed
normally, the body allows excessive calcium to pass through the digestive tract unabsorbed
if the body absorbs too much calcium the result is hypercalcemia, too much Ca in the blood
too much Ca in the urine increases the risk of developing kidney stones and can lead to calcification of various body tissues (especially the kidneys) and to excessively dense bones (osteosclerosis)
most people have normal Ca metabolism with a calcium thermostat that regulates Ca absorption
the body places a higher priority on maintaining enough Ca in the blood than in the bones
if blood calcium levels fall lower than necessary to maintain normal functioning of the muscles and heart (which use Ca for contraction), the body uses calcium from the bones
”idiopathic hypercalciuria” is a metabolic disorder in which the intestines do not adequately regulate calcium absorption
1000 mg. of extra Ca/day increases the calcium concentration of the urine by an average of 50-70 mg./day in middle-aged and elderly people
phytates in grains and cereals, and oxalates in spinach, rhubarb, cocoa, chocolate, and coffee, bind calcium and inhibit absorption