forty percent of Americans take vitamin and mineral supplements
optimal bodily function, especially in athletes, cannot occur without daily ingestion of a precise mix of 59 substances, in the correct amounts
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur are needed in large amounts, while the remaining 54 are needed in medium or small amounts
the 54 substances previously mentioned are less plentiful in the environment and thus in our food, so you are more likely to develop a deficiency in those ones
as of May 1992, 13 vitamins, 22 minerals, 6 cofactors, 8 amino acids, and two essential fatty acids (EFAs) were recognized as essential to the human system
all nutrients act in synergy to produce, maintain, and renew the body, and if even one is missing, or in short supply, the functions of the others are impaired
the word ”essential” means: 1) nutrients have to be present in adequate amounts or function is impaired, 2) the body cannot make nutrients or cannot make enough of them for normal tissue function, and 3) you have to get them from your diet
supplements can make up for shortcomings in your diet.
supplements can make good health easier for you to achieve.
on 9 April, 1991, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Nutrition, a Washington lobby representing 3000 physicians, asked the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to abandon the four food groups and to reclassify meats and dairy as ”optional foods” – 2004 Harvard has instituted a food pyramid that tips the USDA and Health Canada food pyramids upside down.
a professor of nutritional biochemistry at Cornell University, presented evidence that the excess intakes of meat and dairy products in America is strongly linked with their high rates of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis
on 27 April 1992, the USDA issued a food pyramid emphasizing whole grains, then vegetables, then fruits, as the basis of nutrition, with meats and dairy as minor foods
just a ”balanced” “mainstream” diet alone is not enough to ensure good nutrition.
pregnant women, dieters, and senior citizens, simply cannot obtain the recommended allowances for certain nutrients through “mainstream” food alone.
sometimes supplements are a safer source of certain nutrients than certain foods.
Principles Of Nutrition
Synergy. Nutrients are co-dependant on other nutrients to exert function within the body. They function only by interdependent interactions with each other.
Completeness. The corollary of synergy is that even if one essential nutrient is in short supply, none of the others can function properly.
Biochemical Individuality. Nutritional needs of individuals differ as much as their faces and fingerprints. Each person requires an individual nutrition program
Lifestyle Dynamics. Lifestyle choices such as the choice of training level, or the choice of living in a polluted urban area, dramatically affect nutritional needs.
Precision. There is only a narrow range of intake of each nutrient that will produce the optimum function.
Physiological Dynamics. Improved nutrition must wait on nature to renew whole bodily systems before its effects can show.
works to help transfer electrons (in the mitochondria) in the energy cycle
intimately involved in maintaining immunity, and in the normal functioning of the heart
CoQ10 enhances macrophage activity
it is a potent antioxidant
antiviral activity, as well as increases ones resistance to viruses
body converts CoQ, as well as the amino acid methionine, into CoQ10
exercise produces millions of superoxide free radicals, hydroperoxides and hydroxyl free radicals, which is the major source of continued muscle soreness and weakness you feel for days after heavy exercise
the free radicals produced are a result of the use of oxygen
the first pathway, called the tetravalent reduction of oygen with cytochrome C oxidase, for oxygen use is pretty clean and it uses approximately 95% of the oxygen
the second pathway,called the univalent reduction pathway, which uses the remaining 5% of the oxygen, is a very dirty pathway, producing lots of free radicals
however, the sheer volume of oxygen used during exercise is not the only reason that exercise overwhelms muscles with free radicals
the vital chemical cytochrome C also gets used up
cytochrome C oxidase is the last catalyst in the chain that regenerates ATP, so that the muscles can continue working
when cytochrome C activity falls, CoQ comes to the rescue in completing the regeneration of ATP
however, CoQ may itself produce superoxide radicals
CoQ10, also known as a powerful antioxidant, neutralizes some free radicals as well as increases the efficiency of the energy cycle
overall the effect of elevated CoQ in the muscles is a net reduction in free radicals
in addition, the free radicals from exercise continue to damage tissue long after exercise has ceased
hydroxy radicals react with fats inside cell membranes to make them go rancid (lipid peroxidation)
rancid fats themselves become free radicals called peroxy radicals and the cascade of events continues
with every bout of intense exercise, free radicals lead to an inflammatory chain reaction that can last 20 hours after exercise has ceased
there are 3 endogenous enzymes that can fight free radicals. catalase neutralizes hydrogen peroxides, SOD neutralizes superoxide radicals, and glutathione peroxidase neutralizes peroxides
after exercise, muscle and liver glutathione levels continue to decline, thus indicating their use to destroy free radicals
CoQ10 levels decline rapidly with age after 25
occurs widely in foods, especially polyunsaturated vegetable oils